Daily Archives: September 2, 2019

Strange triple alliance discovered between a sea slug, algae and bacteria

A very interesting three-way symbiotic relationship between a species of sea snail, a seaweed species and a bacterium species was discovered by a Princeton University research group. Researchers have discovered that Elysia rufescens, a species of sea snail from the Plakobranchidae family, is used to eat seaweeds of the genus Bryopsis to build its own chemical “arsenal” to defend itself from predators.

This sea snail is known because it uses chemical compounds to defend itself from predators and these compounds build them by taking the toxic chemicals present in the algae that are in turn produced by a new species of bacterium, discovered by Princeton scientists, which they live within the latter. The bacteria themselves are literally dependent on their “home” and cannot survive except in that particular alga. Precisely for this reason, one-fifth of their metabolic efforts are dedicated to the production of these particular poisonous molecules.

These bacteria, which the scientists then called Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens, are able to produce about 15 different toxins, in turn called kahalalides. These substances serve as alga as a deterrent to not be eaten en masse by fish and other marine animals.

These bacteria are no longer able to live outside the algae because, as the researchers themselves have verified, they no longer have the genes needed to live outside. They spend almost all their lives pumping these toxic molecules that are needed by the alga to protect themselves. However, there is a predator, the sea snail Elysia rufescens, which is capable of resisting these toxins. It stores them and thanks to them it builds another chemical arsenal, even more powerful than that of algae, to counteract its predators.

It does not acquire the ingested bacteria, which are digested as food, but only the substances that these bacteria produce inside the algae. This is a triple complex symbiotic system that Mohamed Donia discovered when he tried to understand how algae defend themselves from other marine organisms, even with the hope of discovering chemicals for creating drugs.

Supplements to stimulate testosterone of the T-Booster type are not very effective according to a new study

A new study by a researcher from the University of Southern California suggests that supplements used to stimulate testosterone, also known as “T-Booster,” could be much less effective than you might think.

According to Mary K. Samplaski, the researcher who led the study, many of the supplements of this type on the market today are simple vitamin and mineral supplements “but they do nothing to improve testosterone.” In this regard, he also mentions how people can be sensitive to the marketing activities implemented by the sellers of this type of supplement, which makes it difficult to distinguish false accounts from the real.

Testosterone is a sex hormone present in males thanks to which men develop those characteristics that are more “masculine” than females, such as more prominent muscles, a deeper tone of voice, a hairy chest, and so on. However, after the age of 30, the natural production of the testosterone body begins to decrease and this can lead, among other things, to erectile dysfunction.

The integration of testosterone with such products is therefore akin to going back a little back in time. However, Samplaski and colleagues analyzed the active ingredients in relation to the claims contained in the advertisements for 150 testosterone supplements of the “T-Booster” type. Among the most common components found in these supplements were zinc, fenugreek extract and vitamin B6.

Comparing the quantities of all 109 components found in the supplements and comparing them with the quantities suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration as well as with the levels considered to be tolerable established by the National Academy of Science, the researchers noticed that 90% of them were advertised as a supplement that could increase testosterone or that could “increase sexual desire or libido” but less than 25% of them provided data to support these claims.

Furthermore, many of them contained levels of mineral vitamins that were higher than tolerable limits.

The researcher’s advice, in relation to low testosterone levels, is to talk to a doctor or nutritionist before resorting to these supplements.